Moscow is one of the world's biggest cities, the capital of its largest state, a place with almost a thousand years of history, a thriving modern megalopolis with a population around 10 million and huge economic and financial potential.
Archaeology has shown that there have been humans on Borovitsky Hill, site of today's Kremlin, between the Rivers Neglinnaya and Moskva, continuously since the end of the last Ice Age. The earliest settlements on the River Moskva go back to the Stone Age. People lived here in the Bronze and Iron Ages too. Still the history of the city is customarily taken to begin with the first mention of it in the chronicles for the year 1147, when Prince Yury Dolgoruky invited Prince Sviatoslav of Novgorod-Seversk to meet him "at Moskov" on the western edge of his principality of Suzdal. Here they held council, after which Yury, the chronicle tells us, gave his guest a great feast. In 1156 Yury built a small wooden fortress on Borovitsky Hill, enclosing an area of about two hectares.
Moscow's rise to the "top league" of Russian cities took place in the reign of Ivan I Kalita ("Ivan the Money-Bag"; died 1340), a grandson of Alexander Nevsky. Using influence and bribery with the Mongol-Tatar Golden Horde, he delivered Moscow from destructive raids and made enormous efforts to strengthen the principality economically. His grandson, Dmitry Donskoi (1350-1389), Grand Prince of Moscow from 1359 and of Vladimir from 1362, made skilful use of the economic might that Ivan I had built up. In 1367 he rebuilt the Kremlin walls in white stone. After reinforcing his capital, he moved into open opposition to the Golden Horde and inflicted two crushing defeats upon it - on the Vozha in 1378 and at Kulikovo Field in 1380, after which he passed the title of grand prince to his son without reference to the khans of the Horde. In his reign Moscow, with the support of the Church (notably Sergius of Radonezh), became a bulwark in the Russian struggle against the Mongols and the unrivalled political and spiritual centre of Rus'.
The decisive role in making Moscow the capital of the Russian state was played by Ivan III (1440-1505), who completed the unification of the Russian lands around Moscow. On Ivan's marriage to Sophia Paleologus, a Byzantine princess who had been in Italian exile since the fall of Constantinople, Moscow was proclaimed the Third Rome and a new symbol appeared in the Russian coat-of-arms - the doiible-headed eigle.
Sights of Moscow
Red Square and the Kremlin - the most important central square of Moscow. On length it 500 meters, and on width of 150 meters, on it is Lenin's Mausoleum and other historical and significant constructions, such as GUM, the building of the Historical museum, Kazan Cathedral, and also various monuments. In a wall, surrounding Red Square ballot boxes of famous Russian figures, including Stalin and the first astronaut Gagarin are established. The name Red Square is dated from the 16th century and literally means "A beautiful place" contrary to a popular belief that it is connected with policy.
In the Kremlin located on Red Square there is a residence of the President of the Russian Federation. Walls and strengthenings of the Kremlin of the 15th eyelid in total with 19 towers remained till the present day. The most known a tower of the Kremlin is Spasskaya Tower with the hours determined on a tower.
The constructed by the prince Yury Dolgorukiy more than 800 years ago, former wooden fort is the museum now. The Kremlin can be visited in any day, except Thursday, from 10-17 o'clock. The Kremlin and Red Square were entered in 1990 in the list of the World heritage of UNESCO. Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world. The magnificent building, but it not really old as looks actually, it was newly constructed in 2000 as the original was earlier destroyed.
St. Basil's Cathedral
It is a beautiful colourful cathedral it was constructed by Ivan the Terrible during the period between 1534 and 1561, in honor of military victories. It consists of nine chapels standing on one base.